The IRP is created by Disk.sys, which is the function driver in the device stack for the My USB Storage Device node. Disk.sys passes the IRP down the device stack to Usbstor.sys. Notice that Usbstor.sys is the PDO driver for the My USB Storage Device node and the FDO driver for the USB Mass Storage Device node.
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Custom Windows Device Driver Development
Thesycon has provided custom Windows driver development services since 1998; the founders of Thesycon have worked in this area since 1994. Based on those many years of experience we offer development services to customers who want to outsource specific tasks of their product development. Thesycon specializes in device driver design and in specific bus technologies such as USB, FireWire and PCI. Clients can contract Thesycon to create a complete PC and device connectivity solution.
Download drivers for Thesycon XMOS USB Audio sound cards (Windows 7 x64), or install DriverPack Solution software for automatic driver download and update. Are you tired of looking for the drivers for your devices? DriverPack Online will find and install the drivers you need automatically. Step 2: Query the Device for USB Descriptors. Next, query the device for USB-specific information such as device speed, interface descriptors, related endpoints, and their pipes. The procedure is similar to the one that USB device drivers use. However, the application completes device queries by calling WinUsbGetDescriptor. Thesycon’s USB audio class driver TUSBAudio targets USB audio devices for professional and semi-professional use and highest quality audiophile HiFi systems. The driver supports devices which are compliant to the USB Audio 2.0 or USB Audio 1.0 device class specification. Installing the Thesycon 1394 stack fixes these problems by replacing the default Microsoft stack. This remedies any problems caused by the updates. The Thesycon FireWire stack has been thoroughly tested and does not cause any other conflicts or problems with any devices. Download Thesycon.
We place a high priority on software quality and good customer support. Our software works reliably in real-world conditions and is maintainable and extensible. As many of our customers work in the area of industrial, medical and automotive applications, we always focus on robustness and efficiency.
Windows System Architecture and Windows Internals
Members of the Thesycon development team have a deep understanding of the internal architecture of the Windows operating system, specifically the kernel. We have written kernel-mode software since the days of Windows 95 and Windows NT. We are familiar with many of the components included in current Windows releases and know all concepts and standards related to driver development very well.
Windows Kernel-Mode Device Drivers
At Thesycon, we have a strong background in hardware. We know devices and combine this knowledge with our deep familiarity with the internals of the Windows operating system to create reliable and efficient device drivers. Thesycon has successfully completed numerous Windows device driver projects, including for USB and FireWire devices, or sophisticated, high-speed PCI/PCI Express DMA devices. We have great experience in creating complex kernel-mode drivers such as bus drivers, filter drivers, network drivers and software-only drivers. We maintain an internal framework which allows us to create reliable and WDM-compliant drivers very quickly.
Win32 Multithreaded Application and Service Programming
Our developers are very familiar with Windows multithreading and I/O concepts. We are able to design robust and efficient Windows applications or services that handle I/O tasks using dedicated threads. A defensive programming style and compliance with documentation ensure that reliable and maintainable code is produced. Our huge experience with Win32-level multi-threaded software development results from countless projects where we successfully created services, applications, utilities, DLLs and other components.
Multimedia and Professional Audio
We are familiar with all current Windows multimedia technologies such as DirectX/DirectShow, BDA and kernel streaming (KS) drivers. Past projects have demanded that we also create audio device drivers for professional use. We have the necessary skills to create reliable WDM audio/MIDI and ASIO drivers with low-latency requirements. Many USB professional audio devices currently available in the market are equipped with Windows drivers created by Thesycon.
Thesycon has worked with USB and IEEE 1394 technologies since they became available on the market. We know the technologies very well and have helped many customers to integrate a USB or 1394 interface into their product. Our developers are familiar with both the PC side and the embedded device side of a bus connection. Of course, we are also accustomed to work with other standard buses such as PCI, CardBus, PCI Express and with network communication technologies such as Ethernet, W-LAN, TCP/IP, etc.
Other Operating Systems
Thesycon have also gained experience with other operating systems, in particular Windows CE and Windows Mobile, Linux and Mac OS X. On those systems, we have successfully created PCI, USB and audio drivers, for instance. In past projects we have developed concepts and strategies to implement device driver functionality in an abstract, operating system independent way. So Windows and other operating systems can be supported with one driver architecture and one code base.
Customers can benefit from Thesycon’s expertise at any stage of product development, from early design discussions to deployment and maintenance. We can handle a complete task, for example all the software needed for PC interfacing, on a pre-quoted fixed cost basis. We will design, implement and test the software and provide support during integration, so customers can benefit from our know-how and reduce project risks.
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Thesycon follows a customer-first support policy - customers' needs are put ahead of our own internal product development. Customers' requirements, for example to meet critical project deadlines, are always highest priority for us.
Customer support is done by the developer who wrote the code. During a project, customers are directly in touch with the developer(s). This ensures that correct answers and solution approaches can be provided quickly.
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Most of the requests that are sent to device drivers are packaged in I/O request packets (IRPs). Each device is represented by a device node, and each device node has a device stack. For more information, see Device nodes and device stacks. To send a read, write, or control request to a device, the I/O manager locates the device node for the device and then sends an IRP to the device stack of that node. Sometimes more than one device stack is involved in processing an I/O request. Regardless of how many device stacks are involved, the overall sequence of drivers that participate in an I/O request is called the driver stack for the request. We also use the term driver stack to refer to the layered set of drivers for a particular technology.
I/O requests that are processed by several device stacks
In some cases, more than one device stack is involved in processing an IRP. The following diagram illustrates a case where four device stacks are involved in processing a single IRP.
Here is how the IRP is processed at each numbered stage in the diagram:
The IRP is created by Disk.sys, which is the function driver in the device stack for the My USB Storage Device node. Disk.sys passes the IRP down the device stack to Usbstor.sys.
Notice that Usbstor.sys is the PDO driver for the My USB Storage Device node and the FDO driver for the USB Mass Storage Device node. At this point, it is not important to decide whether the IRP is owned by the (PDO, Usbstor.sys) pair or the (FDO, Usbstor.sys) pair. The IRP is owned by the driver, Usbstor.sys, and the driver has access to both the PDO and the FDO.
When Usbstor.sys has finished processing the IRP, it passes the IRP to Usbhub.sys. Usbhub.sys is the PDO driver for the USB Mass Storage Device node and the FDO driver for the USB Root Hub node. It is not important to decide whether the IRP is owned by the (PDO, Usbhub.sys) pair or the (FDO, Usbhub.sys) pair. The IRP is owned by the driver, Usbhub.sys, and the driver has access to both the PDO and the FDO.
When Usbhub.sys has finished processing the IRP, it passes the IRP to the (Usbuhci.sys, Usbport.sys) pair.
Usbuhci.sys is a miniport driver, and Usbport.sys is a port driver. The (miniport, port) pair plays the role of a single driver. In this case, both the miniport driver and the port driver are written by Microsoft. The (Usbuhci.sys, Usbport.sys) pair is the PDO driver for the USB Root Hub node, and the (Usbuhci.sys, Usbport.sys) pair is also the FDO driver for the USB Host Controller node. The (Usbuhci.sys, Usbport.sys) pair does the actual communication with the host controller hardware, which in turn communicates with the physical USB storage device.
The driver stack for an I/O request
Consider the sequence of four drivers that participated in the I/O request illustrated in the preceding diagram. We can get another view of the sequence by focusing on the drivers rather than on the device nodes and their individual device stacks. The following diagram shows the drivers in sequence from top to bottom. Notice that Disk.sys is associated with one device object, but each of the other three drivers is associated with two device objects.
The sequence of drivers that participate in an I/O request is called the driver stack for the I/O request. To illustrate a driver stack for an I/O request, we draw the drivers from top to bottom in the order that they participate in the request.
Notice that the driver stack for an I/O request is quite different from the device stack for a device node. Also notice that the driver stack for an I/O request does not necessarily remain in one branch of the device tree.
Technology driver stacks
Consider the driver stack for the I/O request shown in the preceding diagram. If we give each of the drivers a friendly name and make some slight changes to the diagram, we have a block diagram that is similar to many of those that appear in the Windows Driver Kit (WDK) documentation.
In the diagram, the driver stack is divided into three sections. We can think of each section as belonging to a particular technology or to a particular component or portion of the operating system. For example, we might say that the first section at the top of the driver stack belongs to the Volume Manager, the second section belongs to the storage component of the operating system, and the third section belongs to the core USB portion of the operating system.
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Consider the drivers in the third section. These drivers are a subset of a larger set of core USB drivers that Microsoft provides for handling various kinds of USB requests and USB hardware. The following diagram shows what the entire USB core block diagram might look like.
A block diagram that shows all of the drivers for a particular technology or a particular component or portion of the operating system is called a technology driver stack. Typically, technology driver stacks are given names like the USB Core Driver Stack, the Storage Stack, the 1394 Driver Stack, and the Audio Driver Stack.
Note The USB core block diagram in this topic shows one of several possible ways to illustrate the technology driver stacks for USB 1.0 and 2.0. For the official diagrams of the USB 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 driver stacks, see USB Driver Stack Architecture.