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In Windows, devices are represented by device nodes in the Plug and Play (PnP) device tree. Typically, when an I/O request is sent to a device, several drivers help handle the request. Each of these drivers is associated with a device object, and the device objects are arranged in a stack. The sequence of device objects along with their associated drivers is called a device stack. Each device node has its own device stack.

Device nodes and the Plug and Play device tree

Windows organizes devices in a tree structure called the Plug and Play device tree, or simply the device tree. Typically, a node in the device tree represents either a device or an individual function on a composite device. However, some nodes represent software components that have no association with physical devices.

A node in the device tree is called a device node. The root node of the device tree is called the root device node. By convention, the root device node is drawn at the bottom of the device tree, as shown in the following diagram.

The device tree illustrates the parent/child relationships that are inherent in the PnP environment. Several of the nodes in the device tree represent buses that have child devices connected to them. For example, the PCI Bus node represents the physical PCI bus on the motherboard. During startup, the PnP manager asks the PCI bus driver to enumerate the devices that are connected to the PCI bus. Those devices are represented by child nodes of the PCI Bus node. In the preceding diagram, the PCI Bus node has child nodes for several devices that are connected to the PCI bus, including USB host controllers, an audio controller, and a PCI Express port.

Some of the devices connected to the PCI bus are buses themselves. The PnP manager asks each of these buses to enumerate the devices that are connected to it. In the preceding diagram, we can see that the audio controller is a bus that has an audio device connected to it. We can see that the PCI Express port is a bus that has a display adapter connected to it, and the display adapter is a bus that has one monitor connected to it.

Whether you think of a node as representing a device or a bus depends on your point of view. For example, you can think of the display adapter as a device that plays a key role in preparing frames that appear on the screen. However, you can also think of the display adapter as a bus that is capable of detecting and enumerating connected monitors.

Device objects and device stacks

A device object is an instance of a DEVICE_OBJECTEuromex microscope bv driver download for windows 10 64-bit. structure. Each device node in the PnP device tree has an ordered list of device objects, and each of these device objects is associated with a driver. The ordered list of device objects, along with their associated drivers, is called the device stack for the device node.

You can think of a device stack in several ways. In the most formal sense, a device stack is an ordered list of (device object, driver) pairs. However, in certain contexts it might be useful to think of the device stack as an ordered list of device objects. In other contexts, it might be useful to think of the device stack as an ordered list of drivers.

By convention, a device stack has a top and a bottom. The first device object to be created in the device stack is at the bottom, and the last device object to be created and attached to the device stack is at the top.

In the following diagram, the Proseware Gizmo device node has a device stack that contains three (device object, driver) pairs. The top device object is associated with the driver AfterThought.sys, the middle device object is associated with the driver Proseware.sys, and the bottom device object is associated with the driver Pci.sys. The PCI Bus node in the center of the diagram has a device stack that contains two (device object, driver) pairs--a device object associated with Pci.sys and a device object associated with Acpi.sys.

How does a device stack get constructed?

During startup, the PnP manager asks the driver for each bus to enumerate child devices that are connected to the bus. For example, the PnP manager asks the PCI bus driver (Pci.sys) to enumerate the devices that are connected to the PCI bus. In response to this request, Pci.sys creates a device object for each device that is connected to the PCI bus. Each of these device objects is called a physical device object (PDO). Shortly after Pci.sys creates the set of PDOs, the device tree looks like the one shown in the following diagram.

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The PnP manager associates a device node with each newly created PDO and looks in the registry to determine which drivers need to be part of the device stack for the node. The device stack must have one (and only one) function driver and can optionally have one or more filter drivers. The function driver is the main driver for the device stack and is responsible for handling read, write, and device control requests. Filter drivers play auxiliary roles in processing read, write, and device control requests. As each function and filter driver is loaded, it creates a device object and attaches itself to the device stack. A device object created by the function driver is called a functional device object (FDO), and a device object created by a filter driver is called a filter device object (Filter DO). Now the device tree looks something like this diagram.

In the diagram, notice that in one node, the filter driver is above the function driver, and in the other node, the filter driver is below the function driver. A filter driver that is above the function driver in a device stack is called an upper filter driver. A filter driver that is below the function driver is called a lower filter driver.

The PDO is always the bottom device object in a device stack. This results from the way a device stack is constructed. The PDO is created first, and as additional device objects are attached to the stack, they are attached to the top of the existing stack.

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Note When the drivers for a device are installed, the installer uses information in an information (INF) file to determine which driver is the function driver and which drivers are filters. Typically the INF file is provided either by Microsoft or by the hardware vendor. After the drivers for a device are installed, the PnP manager can determine the function and filter drivers for the device by looking in the registry.

Bus drivers

In the preceding diagram, you can see that the driver Pci.sys plays two roles. First, Pci.sys is associated with the FDO in the PCI Bus device node. In fact, it created the FDO in the PCI Bus device node. So Pci.sys is the function driver for the PCI bus. Second, Pci.sys is associated with the PDO in each child of the PCI Bus node. Recall that it created the PDOs for the child devices. The driver that creates the PDO for a device node is called the bus driver for the node.

If your point of reference is the PCI bus, then Pci.sys is the function driver. But if your point of reference is the Proseware Gizmo device, then Pci.sys is the bus driver. This dual role is typical in the PnP device tree. A driver that serves as function driver for a bus also serves as bus driver for a child device of the bus.

User-mode device stacks

So far we've been discussing kernel-mode device stacks. That is, the drivers in the stacks run in kernel mode, and the device objects are mapped into system space, which is the address space that is available only to code running in kernel mode. For information about the difference between kernel mode and user mode, see User mode and kernel mode.

In some cases, a device has a user-mode device stack in addition to its kernel-mode device stack. User-mode drivers are often based on the User-Mode Driver Framework (UMDF), which is one of the driver models provided by the Windows Driver Frameworks (WDF). In UMDF, the drivers are user-mode DLLs, and the device objects are COM objects that implement the IWDFDevice interface. A device object in a UMDF device stack is called a WDF device object (WDF DO).

The following diagram shows the device node, kernel-mode device stack, and the user-mode device stack for a USB-FX-2 device. The drivers in both the user-mode and kernel-mode stacks participate in I/O requests that are directed at the USB-FX-2 device.

Related topics

A Sage Drive enables you to store the company’s data and allows you to access your Sage 50 company data from any computer that has Sage 50 installed in it. Sage drive is essential for all type of businesses regardless of its size. Sage drive allows you to access data from numerous locations safely and conveniently. There is absolutely no need to connect USB drive for transmitting information from one system to another.

This article pays emphasis on the importance of the Sage Drive and explicitly elucidates the process of downloading a company shared with Sage Drive.

Why Sage Drive is Important?

Sage Drive connects the data of the company in one single server from where you can access the information. This method is beneficial for businesses that are looking to access important information from their comfort place without physically moving anywhere. As long as Sage 50 is installed in your PC, Sage Drive automatically syncs the database and stores the information in the cloud from where you can easily access the data from any location without the need of your presence.

For immediate assistance in regards to downloading a company shared with Sage drive, speak to our experts at Accountinghub Sage 50 accounting helpline number1844-871-6289

If you are too are looking to download a Sage Drive Company in your computer system, then follow the steps mentioned-below:

Steps to Download a Company Shared with Sage Drive

  • Click on the option file and select download a sage drive company

Note: This option can be seen only when no companies are open in the program

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  • Select the option ‘Sign In’ in your sage ID and enter all related information
  • Select option Next from the Sage drive company Access Wizard
  • After this, you can select the company which you would like to download
  • After selecting the preferred option, press option Next
  • While downloading, a local copy of the company is created in your data path
  • The download will take place only once
  • After Sage Drive is downloaded, open sage drive company like other company
  • After completing the download, you will see Sage Drive Company listed in the Open an Existing Company Window.
  • Once the process gets completed, you will see Sage Drive Company is listed in the Open and Existing Company window.
  • Open Sage Drive and start your work in the company.

Today businesses are increasingly using accounting software like Sage 50 to store the data of the company very safely and securely. With Sage Drive, businesses upload Sage 50 data to the Cloud, so that it becomes easier to access the data from one system to another at anytime and anywhere with the Internet access. If you encounter any type of error while downloading Sage Drive Company, you can take help of knowledgeable and professional of Sage tech support team to help you find the best solution to meet your needs.

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After downloading the sage drive company, the next step is to activate the sage drive. Let us have a sneak peek at the process of activating the Sage drive.

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How does it Work?

Step 1: You must first create a Sage ID

  • Open a company
  • Select the option File and then select share company
  • After signing up enter requested information to create Sage ID

Note: Ensure that you have access to your email ID for activating the account (Auto link will be sent to registered mail ID for activation)

  • Select the sage activation link from your email-id
  • Select the option ‘Register’ for sharing a company
  • Select Manage User Access in the Sage
  • Next, enter your email address and password to protect it from getting dodged
  • After registration, you can see that Sage ID is activated.

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Ensure that you work under proper network connectivity as Sage Drive work smoothly on a stable Internet connection. The recommended download speed of the Internet connection should be 4 Mbps or higher while the uploading speed should be 2 Mbps or higher. In addition, the idea behind downloading Sage Drive Company is that when you are away from the primary location where data is stored, you can access the data at the time of necessity.

For Sage 50 Technical Support

If you are unable to download and activate Sage Drive Company, then it is advised to seek the help of Accountinghub Sage 50 tech support team. You can get in touch with our Sage technical team 24*7 on our helpline number.

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To know more, call our Sage helpdesk support team now at our 24/7 active toll-free number 1844-871-6289